Cyclic Adenosine-3′,5′-Monophosphate-Mediated Activation of a Glutamine Synthetase Composite Glucocorticoid Response Element

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Abstract

The glutamate synthetase gene (GS) contains a composite glucocorticoid response element (cGRE) comprised of a GRE and an adjacent element with features of both a cAMP-response element (CRE) and a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) response element (TRE). The CRE/TRE element of the cGRE contributed to two modes of transcriptional activation: 1) enhancement of the response to cortisol and 2) a synergistic response to cortisol and increased cAMP. COS-7 cells transfected with a cGRE-luciferase construct show minimal expression under basal conditions or forskolin treatment. After cortisol treatment, luciferase activity from the cGRE is enhanced 4- to 8-fold greater than the GRE portion of the cGRE or a GRE from the tyrosine aminotransferase gene. Treatment with both forskolin and cortisol produced a 2- to 4-fold synergistic response over cortisol alone. Synergy is also seen with 8-bromo-cAMP, is specific for the cGRE, and occurs in a number of established cell lines. Elimination of the GRE or CRE/TRE reduces the synergy by 70-100%. Altering the CRE/TRE to GRE spacing changed both enhancement and synergy. Moving the elements 3 bp closer or extending 15 bp reduced enhancement. Synergy was markedly reduced when elements were one half of a helical turn out of phase. Western blots verified that CREB (cAMP-responsive binding protein) and ATF-1 (activating transcription factor-1) binds to the cGRE sequence. A specific dominant negative inhibitor of the CREB family, A-CREB, reduced synergy by 50%. These results suggest that the GS cGRE can potentially integrate signaling from both the cAMP and glucocorticoid receptor transduction pathways and that CREB/ATF-1 may play an important role in this process.

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