Gangliosides, Ab1 and Ab2 antibodies: II. Light versus heavy chain: An idiotype-anti-idiotype case study

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The antibody heavy chain is generally more important than the light chain for the interaction with the antigen, although many reports demonstrate the influence of the light chain in the antibody binding properties. The heavy chains of anti-N-glycolyl-ganglioside P3 mAb and anti-idiotypic 1E10 mAb display complementary charged residues in their H-CDRs, particularly in H-CDR3. A basic residue in P3 mAb H-CDR1 was shown to be crucial for the interaction with the antigen and 1E10 mAb. The immunogenetic features of three other P3 mAb anti-idiotypic mAbs are now analyzed. One of them bears the same heavy chain as 1E10 mAb and a different light chain, but differs in its binding to P3 mAb mutants where H-CDR basic residues were replaced and in the binding to 1E10-specific phagotopes. Chimeric hybrid antibodies with P3 and 1E10 mAb heavy chains and unrelated light chains were obtained to further determine the importance of heavy chains in P3 and 1E10 mAb binding properties. One of the P3 heavy chain hybrid antibodies retained the specificity of P3 mAb with slight affinity differences. The heavy chains appear to play the main role in these mAb interactions, with the light chains modulating the affinity to their ligands.

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