Pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), such as lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), have been identified in many animals and play a crucial role in invertebrate defense systems. In the current study, an LGBP gene was cloned from fleshy prawn (Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Fc-LGBP) utilizing homology cloning and RACE methods. The full cDNA of the Fc-LGBP gene in fleshy prawn was 1253 bp in size with a deduced 366 amino acid protein that includes a glycosyl hydrolase domain. Northern blot and RT-PCR data suggested that Fc-LGBP mRNA was mostly synthesized in haemocytes and that the expression was down-regulated 24 h post-injection of bacteria. In situ hybridization demonstrated that Fc-LGBP mRNA was only detected in haemocyte cytoplasm, with no detection in other tissues. The molecular weight of the purified recombinantly expressed Fc-LGBP was approximately 46 kDa. Immunohistochemistry of haemocytes revealed that Fc-LGBP protein was localized on the membrane of most cells. Data from bacterial binding assays utilizing purified protein suggested that rFc-LGBP had strong binding activity to Gram-negative bacteria.