Lysozyme is a widely distributed hydrolase possessing lytic activity against bacterial peptidoglycan, which enables it to protect the host against pathogenic infection. In the present study, the cDNA of an invertebrate goose-type lysozyme (designated CFLysG) was cloned from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri by expressed sequence tag (EST) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. The full-length cDNA of CFLysG consisted of 829 nucleotides with a canonical polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a poly(A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 603 bp encoding a polypeptide of 200 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 21.92 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.76. The high similarity of CFLysG with goose-type (g-type) lysozymes in vertebrate indicated that CFLysG should be an invertebrate counterpart of g-type lysozyme family, which suggested that the origin of g-type lysozyme preceded the emergence of urochordates and even preceded the emergence of deuterostomes. Similar to most g-type lysozymes, CFLysG possessed all conserved features critical for the fundamental structure and function of g-type lysozymes, such as three catalytic residues (Glu 82, Asp 97, Asp 108). By Northern blot analysis, mRNA transcript of CFLysG was found to be most abundantly expressed in the tissues of gills, hepatopancreas and gonad, weakly expressed in the tissues of haemocytes and mantle, while undetectable in the adductor muscle. These results suggested that CFLysG could possess combined features of both the immune and digestive adaptive lysozymes. To gain insight into the in vitro lytic activities of CFLysG, the mature peptide coding region was cloned into Pichia pastoris for heterogeneous expression. Recombinant CFLysG showed inhibitive effect on the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with more potent activities against Gram-positive bacteria, which indicated the involvement of CFLysG in the innate immunity of C. farreri.