The in vivo immunoadjuvant effects of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) have been studied extensively in mice and relatively fewer studies have been done in other species. But so far, the innate immunostimulatory effects of CpG ODN have been demonstrated just in mouse, monkey, sheep and chicken in some reports. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential effects of CpG ODN in newborn piglets. The proportion of CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes subpopulations and the major histocompability complex (MHC-II) antigen expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and IFN-γ in serum were tested at various time-points. The results suggested that, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased over time in piglets inoculated with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) alone, however, it was stable in CpG ODN-inoculated piglets; the use of CpG ODN can prevent effectively the reduction of the proportion of CD4+ T lymphocytes. The MHC-II antigen expression and IFN-γ level of CpG ODN-injected piglets were significantly higher than those of PBS-injected piglets. The ODN-induced responses were stronger in animals injected with CpG ODN formulated in 30% emulsigen than in PBS. The innate immunostimulatory activity of CpG ODN appeared to be in dose-dependent manner. These in vivo data demonstrate for the first time that CpG ODN can stimulate innate immune system in newborn piglets.