Therapeutic approaches aimed at targeting tumor surface markers using monoclonal antibodies provide a powerful strategy in cancer treatment. Here we report selection of single variable domains (VHH) of llama heavy chain antibodies, using a VHH-phage-display library. A reverse proteomic approach was used to identify the cognate proteins recognized by enriched VHH on HeLa cells. One of these VHH bound the integrin α3β1 (VLA-3) and was further characterized. Most interestingly, this VHH could inhibit VLA-3 mediated cell-matrix adhesion. Our approach provides a fast and efficient method to screen for novel cell surface markers on normal and tumor cells that may find diagnostic or therapeutic application in disease management or treatment.