Mechanisms for T cell tolerance induced with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

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Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been widely accepted as a mediator of T cell tolerance. The immune modulatory effect of G-CSF on T cells is believed to be mediated exclusively through other effector cells, such as monocytes, tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC), and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Recent advances confirmed the direct effects of G-CSF in inducing immune tolerance of T cells through the G-CSF-G-CSF receptor pathway and related molecular mechanisms. This review aims to summarize the findings associated with the direct and indirect mechanisms for T cell tolerance induced with G-CSF. The role of G-CSF in preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and in treating autoimmune diseases (ADs) is also discussed. It is conceivable that G-CSF and immune cell compositions, such as tolerogenic DC and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, modulated by G-CSF could become an integral part of the immunomodulatory therapies against GVHD and ADs in the future.

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