Manipulation of necroptosis byPorphyromonas gingivalisin periodontitis development

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Abstract

To eliminate invading pathogens and keep homeostasis, host employs multiple approaches such as the non-inflammation associated-apoptosis, inflammation associated-necroptosis and pyroptosis, etc. Necroptosis is known as a highly pro-inflammatory form of cell death due to the release of massive damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). For the first time, we reported that Porphyromonas gingivalis induced cellular necroptosis through receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1)/RIP3/mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) signaling pathway in monocytes. Necroptosis in THP-1 cells was induced by MLKL phosphorylation in vitro. P. gingivalis treated-THP-1 cells exhibited lower cell death rate with pretreatment of inhibitors RIP1 and MLKL, accompanied with attenuated TNF-α and IL-6 expressions. Moreover, the necroptosis risk was also reduced via gene silencing by RIP3 or MLKL in the P. gingivalis treated-THP-1 cell lines. We further explored P. gingivalis-induced necroptosis in animal models in vivo. Firstly, C57BL/6 mice were injected with P. gingivalis in the subcutaneous chamber model. Animals pretreated with MLKL inhibitor exhibited significantly enhanced P. gingivalis clearance; in addition, levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were notably decreased by 60% via MLKL inhibition. Secondly, P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis was utilized to investigate necroptosis related-periodontopathogensis. Positive staining of phosphorylated MLKL in mice periodontitis biopsies was detected to a higher degree, while larger amount of alveolar bone loss was observed in MLKL (−) group comparing to those in the MLKL (+) group. These findings may suggest that P. gingivalis play essential roles in necroptosis process during periodontitis, and our research may shed light on the further work on the related periodontopathogenesis investigation.

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