OX40: Structure and function – What questions remain?

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OX40 is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein, reported nearly 30 years ago as a cell surface antigen expressed on activated T cells. Since its discovery, it has been validated as a bone fide costimulatory molecule for T cells and member of the TNF receptor family. However, many questions still remain relating to its function on different T cell sub-sets and with recent interest in its utility as a target for antibody-mediated immunotherapy, there is a growing need to gain a better understanding of its biology.

Here, we review the expression pattern of OX40 and its ligand, discuss the structure of the receptor:ligand interaction, the downstream signalling it can elicit, its function on different T cell subsets and how antibodies might engage with it to provide effective immunotherapy.

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