Acute liver failure is a devastating clinical syndrome with extremely terrible inflammation reaction, which is still lack of effective treatment in clinic. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 protein is inducible intracellular negative regulator of Janus kinases (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway that plays essential role in inhibiting excessive intracellular signaling cascade and preventing autoimmune reaction. In this paper, we want to explore whether dendritic cells (DCs) with overexpression of SOCS1 have a therapeutic effect on experimental acute liver failure. Bone marrow derived dendritic cells were transfected with lentivirus encoding SOCS1 and negative control lentivirus, thereafter collected for costimulatory molecules analysis, allogeneic Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction and Western blot test of JAK/STAT pathway. C57BL/6 mice were randomly separated into normal control and treatment groups which respectively received tail vein injection of modified DCs, negative control DCs and normal saline 12 h earlier than acute liver failure induction. Our results indicated that DCs with overexpression of SOCS1 exhibited like regulatory DCs (DCregs) with low level of costimulatory molecules and poor allostimulatory ability in vitro, which was supposed to correlate with block of JAK2/STAT1 signaling. In vivo tests, we found that infusion of modified DCs increased survival rate of acute liver failure mice and alleviate liver injury via inhibition of TLR4/HMGB1 pathway. We concluded that DCs transduced with SOCS1 gene exhibit as DCregs through negative regulation of JAK2/STAT1 pathway and ameliorated lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine induced acute liver failure via inhibition of TLR4 pathway.