The cooperative roles of PHO80-like cyclins in regulating the G1/S transition and posterior cytoskeletal morphogenesis inTrypanosoma brucei

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Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) represent the fundamental, crucial regulators of the cell division cycle in eukaryotes.Trypanosoma bruceiexpresses a large number of cyclins andCdc2-relatedkinases (CRKs). However, how these cyclins and CRKs cooperate to regulate cell cycle progression remains poorly understood. Here, we carry out directional yeast two-hybrid assays to identify the interactions between the 10 cyclins and the 11 CRKs and detect a total of 26 cyclin–CRK pairs, among which 20 pairs are new. Our current efforts are focused on four PHO80-like cyclins, CYC2, CYC4, CYC5 and CYC7, and their physical and functional interactions with CRK1. Silencing of the four cyclins and CRK1 leads to the increase of G1 cells and defective DNA replication, suggesting their important roles in promoting the G1/S transition. Additionally, CYC2-, CYC7- and CRK1-deficient cells possess an elongated posterior that is filled with newly assembled microtubules. Further, we show that the four cyclins display distinct subcellular localizations and half-lives, suggesting that they likely undergo distinct regulation. Altogether, our results demonstrate the involvement of four CRK1-associated cyclins, CYC2, CYC4, CYC5 and CYC7, in promoting the G1/S transition and the requirement of CYC2 and CYC7 in maintaining posterior cytoskeletal morphogenesis during the G1/S transition.

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