Negative immune checkpoints on T lymphocytes and their relevance to cancer immunotherapy

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The term ‘inhibitory checkpoint’ refers to the broad spectrum of co-receptors expressed by T cells that negatively regulate T cell activation thus playing a crucial role in maintaining peripheral self-tolerance. Co-inhibitory receptor ligands are highly expressed by a variety of malignancies allowing evasion of anti-tumour immunity. Recent studies demonstrate that manipulation of these co-inhibitory pathways can remove the immunological brakes that impede endogenous immune responses against tumours. Antibodies that block the interactions between co-inhibitory receptors and their ligands have delivered very promising clinical responses, as has been shown by recent successful trials targeting the CTLA-4 and PD-1 pathways. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of action and expression pattern of co-inhibitory receptors on different T cells subsets, emphasising differences between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We also summarise recent clinical findings utilising immune checkpoint blockade.

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