A chromosome 16p13.11 microduplication causes hyperactivity through dysregulation of miR-484/protocadherin-19 signaling

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Chromosome 16p13.11 microduplication is a risk factor associated with various neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and autistic spectrum disorder. The underlying molecular mechanism of this genetic variation remained unknown, but its core genetic locus—conserved across mice and humans—contains seven genes. Here, we generated bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic mice carrying a human 16p13.11 locus, and these mice showed the behavioral hyperactivity phenotype. We identified miR-484 as the responsible gene using a combination of expression and functional analyses. Mature miR-484 was expressed during active cortical neurogenesis, and overexpression of miR-484 decreased proliferation and increased neural progenitor differentiation in vivo. Luciferase screening identified the 3′-untranslated region of protocadherin-19 (Pcdh19) as a target of miR-484. The effect of miR-484 on neurogenesis was rescued by ectopic PCDH19 expression. These results demonstrate that miR-484 promotes neurogenesis by inhibiting PCDH19. Dysregulation of neurogenesis by imbalanced miR-484/PCDH19 expression contributes to the pathogenesis of 16p13.11 microduplication syndrome.

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