|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Traumatic life experiences are associated with alcohol use problems, an association that is likely to be moderated by genetic predisposition. To understand these interactions, we conducted a gene-by-environment genome-wide interaction study (GEWIS) of alcohol use problems in two independent samples, the Army STARRS (STARRS, N = 16 361) and the Yale-Penn (N = 8084) cohorts. Because the two cohorts were assessed using different instruments, we derived separate dimensional alcohol misuse scales and applied a proxy-phenotype study design. In African-American subjects, we identified an interaction of PRKG1 rs1729578 with trauma exposure in the STARRS cohort and replicated its interaction with trauma exposure in the Yale-Penn cohort (discoveryreplication meta-analysis: z = 5.64, P = 1.69 × 10-8). PRKG1 encodes cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase 1, which is involved in learning, memory and circadian rhythm regulation. Considering the loci identified in stage-1 that showed same effect directions in stage-2, the gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed several significant results, including calcium-activated potassium channels (GO:0016286; P = 2.30 × 10-5), cognition (GO:0050890; P = 1.90 × 10-6), locomotion (GO:0040011; P = 6.70 × 10-5) and Stat3 protein regulation (GO:0042517; P = 6.4 × 10-5). To our knowledge, this is the largest GEWIS performed in psychiatric genetics, and the first GEWIS examining risk for alcohol misuse. Our results add to a growing body of literature highlighting the dynamic impact of experience on individual genetic risk.