A dual-bolus protocol can overcome limitations due to T1-induced MR signal attenuation and hence enables more accurate quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) by contrast enhanced MR perfusion imaging. The study explores potential benefits of the dual-bolus technique for the assessment of myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) over a standard single-bolus protocol. Nineteen patients without obstructive coronary artery disease as assessed by cardiac catheterization underwent a stress-rest MR perfusion study using a dual-bolus protocol. Gd-DTPA dosages of 0.005 and 0.05 mmol/kg of bodyweight were delivered as pre- and main-bolus. For comparison arterial input curves where extracted from left ventricular cavity passage including both, pre-bolus and main-bolus data. Global and segmental MPR were determined from semiquantitative and from full quantitative measures of MBF. As a result good agreement between dual- and single-bolus technique was found with relative differences of maximally 10% in global MPR estimates. For the dual bolus approach a significant relative decrease of 30% (P< 0.001) was found for the coefficient of segmental MPR variation, which may allow a more reliable detection of hypoperfused segments in clinical studies.