XD-GRASP: Golden-angle radial MRI with reconstruction of extra motion-state dimensions using compressed sensing

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To develop a novel framework for free-breathing MRI called XD-GRASP, which sorts dynamic data into extra motion-state dimensions using the self-navigation properties of radial imaging and reconstructs the multidimensional dataset using compressed sensing.


Radial k-space data are continuously acquired using the golden-angle sampling scheme and sorted into multiple motion-states based on respiratory and/or cardiac motion signals derived directly from the data. The resulting undersampled multidimensional dataset is reconstructed using a compressed sensing approach that exploits sparsity along the new dynamic dimensions. The performance of XD-GRASP is demonstrated for free-breathing three-dimensional (3D) abdominal imaging, two-dimensional (2D) cardiac cine imaging and 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI of the liver, comparing against reconstructions without motion sorting in both healthy volunteers and patients.


XD-GRASP separates respiratory motion from cardiac motion in cardiac imaging, and respiratory motion from contrast enhancement in liver DCE-MRI, which improves image quality and reduces motion-blurring artifacts.


XD-GRASP represents a new use of sparsity for motion compensation and a novel way to handle motions in the context of a continuous acquisition paradigm. Instead of removing or correcting motion, extra motion-state dimensions are reconstructed, which improves image quality and also offers new physiological information of potential clinical value. Magn Reson Med 75:775–788, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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