Determining the Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) Behavior of Citrate and Spermine under In Vivo Conditions

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid



To estimate the exchange rates of labile 1H in citrate and spermine, metabolites present in prostatic secretions, to predict the size of the citrate and spermine CEST effects in vivo.


CEST z-spectra were acquired at high-field [11.7 Tesla (T)] from citrate and spermine solutions at physiological pH (6.5) using saturation power 6 μT. CEST was performed at different temperatures to determine exchange regimes (slow, intermediate or fast). For low pH solutions of spermine, exchange rates were estimated from resonance line width, fitting z-spectra using the Bloch equations incorporating exchange, and using quantifying exchange using saturation time experiments (QUEST). These rates were extrapolated to physiological pH.


Citrate showed little CEST effect at pH 6.5 and temperature (T) = 310 K (maximum 0.001% mM-1), indicating fast exchange, whereas spermine showed greater CEST effects (maximum 0.2% mM-1) indicating intermediate-to-fast exchange. Extrapolating data acquired from low pH spermine solutions predicts exchange rates at pH 6.5 and T of 310 K of at least 2 × 104s-1.


Citrate and spermine show minimal CEST effects at 11.7T even using high saturation power. These effects would be much less than 2% at clinical field-strengths due to relatively faster exchange and would be masked by CEST from proteins. Magn Reson Med 76:742–746, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles