Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 76(4):1047–1058, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 DOI: 10.1002/mrm.26005 , PMID: 26509652 Issn Print: 0740-3194 Publication Date: September 14, 2016 Print Bloch-SiegertSymbol-mapping for human cardiac 31P-MRS at 7 Tesla William Clarke;Matthew Robson;Christopher Rodgers; + Author Information 1 Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research (OCMR)University of Oxford Level 0, John Radcliffe Hospital Oxford OX3 9DU United Kingdom Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid Abstract Purpose:Phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS) is a powerful tool for investigating tissue energetics in vivo. Cardiac 31P-MRS is typically performed using surface coils that create an inhomogeneous excitation field across the myocardium. Accurate measurements of Symbol (and hence flip angle) are necessary for quantitative analysis of 31P-MR spectra. We demonstrate a Bloch-Siegert Symbol-mapping method for this purpose.Theory and Methods:We compare acquisition strategies for Bloch-Siegert Symbol-mapping when there are several spectral peaks. We optimize a Bloch-Siegert sensitizing (Fermi) pulse for cardiac 31P-MRS at 7 Tesla (T) and apply it in a three-dimensional (3D) chemical shift imaging sequence. We validate this in phantoms and skeletal muscle (against a dual-TR method) and present the first cardiac 31P Symbol-maps at 7T.Results:The Bloch-Siegert method correlates strongly (Pearson's r = 0.90 and 0.84) and has bias <25 Hz compared with a multi-TR method in phantoms and dual-TR method in muscle. Cardiac 3D Symbol-maps were measured in five normal volunteers. Symbol maps based on phosphocreatine and alpha-adenosine-triphosphate correlated strongly (r = 0.62), confirming that the method is T1 insensitive.Conclusion:The 3D 31P Bloch-Siegert Symbol-mapping is consistent with reference methods in phantoms and skeletal muscle. It is the first method appropriate for 31P Symbol-mapping in the human heart at 7T. Magn Reson Med 76:1047–1058, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.