2D Pulses using spatially dependent frequency sweeping

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To introduce a method of designing two-dimensional (2D) frequency-modulated pulses that produce phase coherence in a spatiotemporal manner. Uniquely, this class of pulses provides the ability to compensate for field inhomogeneity using a spatiotemporally dependent trajectory of maximum coherence in a single-shot.

Theory and Methods:

A pulse design method based on a k-space description is developed. Bloch simulations and phantom experiments are used to demonstrate sequential spatiotemporal phase coherence and compensation for Symbol and B0 inhomogeneity.


In the presence of modulated gradients, the 2D frequency-modulated pulses were shown to excite a cylinder in a selective manner. With a surface coil transmitter, compensation of the effect of Symbol inhomogeneity was experimentally verified, in agreement with simulation results. In addition, simulations were used to demonstrate partial compensation for B0 inhomogeneity.


The 2D frequency-modulated pulses are a new class of pulses that generate phase coherence sequentially along a spatial trajectory determined by gradient- and frequency-modulated functions. By exploiting their spatiotemporal nature, 2D frequency-modulated pulses can compensate for spatial variation of the radiofrequency field in a single-shot excitation. Preliminary results shown suggest extensions might also be used to compensate for static field inhomogeneity. Magn Reson Med 76:1364–1374, 2016. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

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