Measurement of Bound and Pore Water T1 Relaxation Times in Cortical Bone Using Three-Dimensional Ultrashort Echo Time Cones Sequences

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Purpose:We present three-dimensional ultrashort echo time Cones (3D UTE Cones) techniques for quantification of total water T1 (Symbol), bound water T1 (Symbol), and pore water T1 (Symbol) in vitro and in vivo using a 3 Tesla (T) scanner.Methods:Symbol, Symbol, and Symbol were measured with three-dimensional (3D) Cones and adiabatic inversion recovery Cone (IR-Cone) sequences. Two-dimensional (2D) nonselective ultrashort echo time (UTE) techniques, including saturation recovery, variable repetition times (TRs), and inversion recovery (IR) preparation approaches were compared with 3D-Cones techniques on bovine cortical bone samples (n = 8). The 3D Cones sequences were used to measure Symbol, Symbol, and Symbol in the tibial midshaft of healthy volunteers (n = 8).Results:Comparable T1 images were achieved for cortical bone between 3D Cones and 2D UTE techniques as well as those published in the literature. The 3D Cones sequences showed a mean Symbol of 208 ± 22 ms, a mean Symbol of 545 ± 28 ms, and a mean Symbol of 131 ± 12 ms for bovine cortical bone; and a mean Symbol of 246 ± 32 ms, a mean Symbol of 524 ± 46 ms, and a mean Symbol of 134 ± 11 ms for the tibial midshaft of healthy volunteers.Conclusions:The 3D Cones sequences can be used for fast volumetric assessment of bound and pore water T1 images in vitro and in vivo.

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