Self-Gated 4D Multiphase, Steady-State Imaging With Contrast Enhancement (MUSIC) Using Rotating Cartesian K-Space (ROCK): Validation in Children With Congenital Heart Disease

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Purpose:To develop and validate a cardiac-respiratory self-gating strategy for the recently proposed multiphase steady-state imaging with contrast enhancement (MUSIC) technique.Methods:The proposed SG strategy uses the ROtating Cartesian K-space (ROCK) sampling, which allows for retrospective k-space binning based on motion surrogates derived from k-space center line. The k-space bins are reconstructed using a compressed sensing algorithm. Ten pediatric patients underwent cardiac MRI for clinical reasons. The original MUSIC and 2D-CINE images were acquired as a part of the clinical protocol, followed by the ROCK-MUSIC acquisition, all under steady-state intravascular distribution of ferumoxytol. Subjective scores and image sharpness were used to compare the images of ROCK-MUSIC and original MUSIC.Results:All scans were completed successfully without complications. The ROCK-MUSIC acquisition took 5 ± 1 min, compared to 8 ± 2 min for the original MUSIC. Image scores of ROCK-MUSIC were significantly better than original MUSIC at the ventricular outflow tracts (3.9 ± 0.3 vs. 3.3 ± 0.6, P < 0.05). There was a strong trend toward superior image scores for ROCK-MUSIC in the other anatomic locations.Conclusion:ROCK-MUSIC provided images of equal or superior image quality compared to original MUSIC, and this was achievable with 40% savings in scan time and without the need for physiologic signal.

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