Self-Navigated 4D Cartesian Imaging of Periodic Motion in the Body Trunk Using Partial k-Space Compressed Sensing

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To enable fast and flexible high-resolution four-dimensional (4D) MRI of periodic thoracic/abdominal motion for motion visualization or motion-corrected imaging.


We proposed a Cartesian three-dimensional k-space sampling scheme that acquires a random combination of k-space lines in the Symbol plane. A partial Fourier–like constraint compacts the sampling space to one half of k-space. The central k-space line is periodically acquired to allow an extraction of a self-navigated respiration signal used to populate a k-space of multiple breathing positions. The randomness of the acquisition (induced by periodic breathing pattern) yields a subsampled k-space that is reconstructed using compressed sensing. Local image evaluations (coefficient of variation and slope steepness through organs) reveal information about motion resolvability. Image quality is inspected by a blinded reading. Sequence and reconstruction method are made publicly available.


The method is able to capture and reconstruct 4D images with high image quality and motion resolution within a short scan time of less than 2 min. These findings are supported by restricted-isometry-property analysis, local image evaluation, and blinded reading.


The proposed method provides a clinical feasible setup to capture periodic respiratory motion with a fast acquisition protocol and can be extended by further surrogate signals to capture additional periodic motions. Retrospective parametrization allows for flexible tuning toward the targeted applications.

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