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The negative effects of osteoarthritis (OA), such as pain and depression, interfere with an individual's sleep quality. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of poor quality of sleep in individuals with OA in Taiwan and identify potential predictors. A secondary objective was to examine agreement between objective and subjective measures of sleep quality.In a cross-sectional survey, OA outpatients in Taiwan completed a self-administered questionnaire, incorporating validated measurements for assessing quality of sleep (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)), pain and physical functioning, anxiety and depression, and health-related quality of life. In a nested feasibility study, a sub-sample of participants wore an Actigraph wrist monitor to measure sleep objectively over a three-day period.Of 192 individuals with OA who completed the survey, 30 completed the Actigraph study. The mean PSQI global score was 9.0 (standard deviation 4.5); most participants (135, 70.3%) had poor quality of sleep (global PSQI >5). Key predictors of poor quality of sleep included role limitation due to poor physical functioning, poor social functioning, higher anxiety levels and higher pain levels. There were moderate correlations between subjective and objective measures of sleep quality, although participants underestimated their true sleeping time by two hours.Health professionals need to discuss sleep issues with individuals with OA and include strategies for coping with these difficulties. For reduced night-time pain which may interfere with sleep, additional and appropriate advice about medication is required. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.