Protective effect of female gender–related factors on muscle force-generating capacity and fragility in the dystrophicmdxmouse

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The dystrophic features in hindlimb skeletal muscles of femalemdxmice are unclear.


We analyzed force-generating capacity and force decline after lengthening contraction-induced damage (fragility).


Young (6-month-old) femalemdxmice displayed reduced force-generating capacity (−18%) and higher fragility (23% force decline) compared with female age-matched wild-type mice. These 2 dystrophic features were less accentuated in young female than in young malemdxmice (−32% and 42% force drop). With advancing age, force-generating capacity decreased and fragility increased in old (20 month) femalemdxmice (−21% and 57% force decline), but they were unchanged in old malemdxmice. Moreover, estradiol treatment had no effect in old femalemdxmice.


Female gender–related factors mitigate dystrophic features in young but not oldmdxmice. Further studies are warranted to identify the beneficial gender-related factor in dystrophic muscle. Muscle Nerve, 2013

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