The potential of cytologically reconstructed barley line D-2946 to cope with the major lesions that hamper genome integrity, namely DNA single- and double-strand breaks was investigated. Strand breaks induced by γ-rays and Li ions were assessed by neutral and alkaline comet assay. Repair capacity after bleomycin treatment was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis under neutral and alkaline conditions. Frequencies of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations were also determined. Results indicate that radiation-mediated constitutive rearrangement of the chromosome complement has led to a substantial modulation of the sensitivity of barley genome towards DNA strand breaks, produced by ionising radiation, Li ion implantation and bleomycin in an agent-specific manner, as well as of the clastogenic response to γ-rays. Based on these findings, reconstructed barley karyotype D-2946 can be considered a candidate radio-sensitive line with reduced ability to maintain genome integrity with respect to both DNA and chromosomal damage.