Mycotoxin production and cytotoxicity of Fusarium strains isolated from Norwegian cereals

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Thirty-four isolates of the eight most common Fusarium species isolated from Norwegian cereals; F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides, F. torulosum and F. tricinctum were studied for their cytotoxicity and ability to produce mycotoxins. The strains were cultivated on rice, and analysed for trichothecenes (all species), zearalenone (all species), fusarochromanone (F. equiseti), wortmannin (F. torulosum), moniliformin and enniatins (F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. torulosum). The cytotoxicity of the extracts were examined with an (in vitro) MTT-cell culture assay. All F. graminearum and five of seven F. culmorum isolates belonged to chemotype IA, producing deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, while the two other F. culmorum strains were nivalenol producers (chemotype II). The F. equiseti isolates and one of the F. poae isolates produced both type A and B trichothecenes, and relatively large quantities of fusarochromanone were detected in the F. equiseti cultures. All Fusarium species studied showed significant cytotoxicity, but with a large variation between species, and also within each species. F. sporotrichioides and F. equiseti showed the highest average cytotoxicity.

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