It is well established that resistance or susceptibility to Paracoccidioidis brasiliensis infection in mice is under strict host's genetic control. Mice from A/Sn strain inoculated by the ip route are resistant to fungal infection while infection induced in mice from B10.A strain results in a fatal disease. The early cellular events of infection in both strains are characterized by a marked neutrophilic infiltration that is more prominent in B10.A mice. A peculiar characteristic of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-mouse model is that the subcutaneous (sc) inoculations of the fungus either in resistant (A/Sn) or susceptible (B10.A) mice is self-curing and turns mice from the B10.A strain able to express typical DTH reaction to fungal antigens, as observed in A/Sn mice. Here we report the investigation on the early events of the inflammatory response induced by the inoculation of live fungus into the hind footpad of A/Sn (resistant) and B10.A (susceptible) mice. The influence of neutrophils on the inflammatory response and antibody titers or DTH response to gp43, the major fungal antigen, was also evaluated. Results showed a different course of the inflammatory response induced by fungal inoculation in A/Sn and B10.A mice. Neutrophil depletion before infection differently influenced the kinetics of the inflammatory process in both mice strains but did not modifythe fungal load in the lesions. In neutrophil depleted mice from both strains, a decrease in DTH response and an increase in total antibody titers to gp43 were observed. The significant increase in the fungal load in lesions seen in nude mice indicates that the self-limited infection evoked by fungal inoculation into the subcutaneous tissue is a T-cell dependent phenomenon. The implications of these observations in the pathogenesis of paracoccidioidomycosis are discussed.