A Case ofCunninghamella bertholettiaeRhino-cerebral Infection in a Leukaemic Patient and Review of Recent Published Studies

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Cunninghamella bertholletiae infection occurs most frequently in neutropenic patients affected by haematological malignancies, is associated with an unfavourable outcome. We report a case of rhino-mastoidal fungal infection in a leukaemic patient. Bioptical tissue cultures yield the isolation of a mould with typical properties of Cunninghamella species. Liposomal amphotericin B (L-Amb) therapy combined with surgical intervention brought the lesion to recovery. Nevertheless, the patient died 14 days after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from bacterial sepsis. Mastoiditis was documented at CT-scan. The conditioning regimen probably caused the reactivation of the Cunninghamella infection that led to the patient's fatal outcome; fungal hyphae were detected after autopsy of brain and lung tissue.

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