Prospective antifungal therapy (PATH) alliance®: focus on mucormycosis

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SummaryMucormycosis is increasingly encountered in immunosuppressed patients, such as those with haematological malignancies or stem cell transplantation. We present a descriptive analysis of 121 cases of mucormycosis from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy Alliance® registry (July 2004 to December 2008). Patients with proven or probable mucormycosis were enrolled and followed prospectively for 12 weeks. The most common underlying disease and site of infection were haematologic malignancy (61.2%) and lungs (46.3%) respectively. Rhizopus (n = 63; 52.1%) was the most commonly isolated species, followed by Mucor (n = 28; 23.1%), other or unknown (n = 17; 14.0%), Rhizomucor (n = 9; 7.4%) and Lichtheimia (n = 4; 3.3%). The 12-week Kaplan–Meier survival probability for all patients was 0.41; however, there was large variation in survival probabilities between species, with highest survival probability observed for Lichtheimia (0.5), followed by Rhizopus (0.47), Mucor (0.40), unknown Mucormycetes species (0.40), other Mucormycetes species (0.17) and Rhizomucor (0.15). Prior use of voriconazole decreased 12-week survival probability. Survival probability was higher in patients receiving amphotericin B by Day 3 (0.72) vs. those who started amphotericin B therapy after Day 3 (0.33). The low survival probability observed underscores the importance of further studies of mucormycosis. Optimal treatment selection and timing may improve prognosis.

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