In this review, the most recent progress in the development of noble metal nano-optical sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy is summarized. The sensing principle relies on the LSPR spectral shifts caused by the surrounding dielectric environmental change in a binding event. Nanosphere lithography, an inexpensive and simple nanofabrication technique, has been used to fabricate the nanoparticles as the LSPR sensing platforms. As an example of the biosensing applications, the LSPR detection for a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease, amyloid-derived diffusable ligands, in human brain extract and cerebrospinal fluid samples is highlighted. Furthermore, the LSPR sensing method can be modified easily and used in a variety of applications. More specifically, a LSPR chip capable of multiplex sensing, a combined electrochemical and LSPR protocol and a fabrication method of solution-phase nanotriangles are presented here.