Recent advances in the field of nanotechnology led several groups to recognize the promise of recruiting nanomaterials to the ongoing battle against pathogenic bacteria. A large battery of newly discovered and developed nanomaterials has been accumulating during the last decade, therefore, it could be anticipated that it should only be a matter of time until such preliminary nanomedicine applications are presented. We review some of these pioneering studies in which nanomaterials have been evaluated as potential therapeutics, antiseptics or disinfectants. These studies can be divided roughly into two groups. The first are studies of antibacterial nanomedicines that are based solely on synthetic (artificial) materials. The second group comprises studies of antibacterial nanomaterials that are based on biological substances used in their natural or in a modified form. We will discuss the physicochemical and antibacterial highlights of each material and present the future perspectives of this emerging field.