Nanoengineering approaches to the design of artificial antigen-presenting cells

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Artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) have shown great initial promise for ex vivo activation of cytotoxic T cells. The development of aAPCs has focused mainly on the choice of proteins to use for surface presentation to T cells when conjugated to various spherical, microscale particles. We review here biomimetic nanoengineering approaches that have been applied to the development of aAPCs that move beyond initial concepts about aAPC development. This article also discusses key technologies that may be enabling for the development of nano- and micro-scale aAPCs with nanoscale features, and suggests several future directions for the field.

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