Review: Familial Parkinson's disease – genetics, clinical phenotype and neuropathology in relation to the common sporadic form of the disease

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Abstract

The identification of the first gene in familial Parkinson's disease (PD) only 10 years ago was a major step in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms in neurodegeneration. Alpha-synuclein aggregation was not only recognized as a key event in neurodegeneration in patients carrying mutations in this gene, but it turned out to be the most consistent marker to define Lewy body pathology also in non-heritable idiopathic PD (IPD). Subsequent comprehensive pathoanatomical studies of IPD brains led to a novel concept of an ascending pathological process in variable stages that are reflected by alpha-synuclein aggregation at specific predilection sites. To date, more than seven genes are known to cause familial PD. The fact that these genetic forms of Parkinsonism present with clinical features indistinguishable from IPD, but may display neuropathological features that are not consistent with IPD, underscores the need of a more differentiated approach to familial and sporadic forms of Parkinsonism. Indeed, in distinct populations, mutations in one single gene were found to cause the disease in up to 40% of patients formerly described as ‘idiopathic’ cases. These findings indicate that IPD, as defined by a late-onset disorder with no (apparent) genetic contribution, is part of a clinical syndrome that becomes more and more heterogeneous in terms of aetiology, with overlapping clinical and pathoanatomical features. Thus in the present review, we discuss clues from familial PD to our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of neurodegeneration with special consideration of the variable clinical and neuropathological aspects.

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