Composite co-activator ARC mediates chromatin-directed transcriptional activation

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Abstract

Gene activation in eukaryotes is regulated by complex mechanisms in which the recruitment and assembly of the transcriptional machinery is directed by gene-and cell-type-specific DNA-binding proteins [1]. When DNA is packaged into chromatin, the regulation of gene activation requires new classes of chromatin-targeting activity [2]. In humans, a multisubunit cofactor functions in a chromatin-selective manner to potentiate synergistic gene activation by the transcriptional activators SREBP-1a and Sp1 [3]. Here we show that this activator-recruited cofactor (ARC) interacts directly with several different activators, including SREBP-1a, VP16 and the p65 subunit of NF-kappa B, and strongly enhances transcription directed by these activators in vitro with chromatin-assembled DNA templates. The ARC complex consists of 16 or more subunits; some of these are novel gene products, whereas others are present in other multisubunit cofactors, such as CRSP [4], NAT [5] and mammalian Mediator [6]. Detailed analysis indicates that the ARC complex is probably identical to the nuclear hormone-receptor cofactor DRIP [7]. Thus, ARC/DRIP is a large composite co-activator that belongs to a family of related cofactors and is targeted by different classes of activator to mediate transcriptional stimulation.

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