Quantum control and process tomography of a semiconductor quantum dot hybrid qubit

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The similarities between gated quantum dots and the transistors in modern microelectronics1,2—in fabrication methods, physical structure and voltage scales for manipulation—have led to great interest in the development of quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor quantum dots3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18. Although quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications, such as factoring19. Furthermore, scalability and manufacturability are enhanced when qubits are as simple as possible. Previous work has increased the speed of spin qubit rotations by making use of integrated micromagnets11, dynamic pumping of nuclear spins12or the addition of a third quantum dot17. Here we demonstrate a qubit that is a hybrid of spin and charge. It is simple, requiring neither nuclear-state preparation nor micromagnets. Unlike previous double-dot qubits, the hybrid qubit enables fast rotations about two axes of the Bloch sphere. We demonstrate full control on the Bloch sphere with π-rotation times of less than 100 picoseconds in two orthogonal directions, which is more than an order of magnitude faster than any other double-dot qubit. The speed arises from the qubit's charge-like characteristics, and its spin-like features result in resistance to decoherence over a wide range of gate voltages. We achieve full process tomography in our electrically controlled semiconductor quantum dot qubit, extracting high fidelities of 85 per cent forXrotations (transitions between qubit states) and 94 per cent forZrotations (phase accumulation between qubit states).

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