Genomic profiling of DNA methyltransferases reveals a role for DNMT3B in genic methylation

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Abstract

DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification associated with transcriptional repression of promoters and is essential for mammalian development. Establishment of DNA methylation is mediated by thede novoDNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B, whereas DNMT1 ensures maintenance of methylation through replication1. Absence of these enzymes is lethal2, and somatic mutations in these genes have been associated with several human diseases3,4. How genomic DNA methylation patterns are regulated remains poorly understood, as the mechanisms that guide recruitment and activity of DNMTsin vivoare largely unknown. To gain insights into this matter we determined genomic binding and site-specific activity of the mammaliande novoDNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B. We show that both enzymes localize to methylated, CpG-dense regions in mouse stem cells, yet are excluded from active promoters and enhancers. By specifically measuring sites ofde novomethylation, we observe that enzymatic activity reflects binding.De novomethylation increases with CpG density, yet is excluded from nucleosomes. Notably, we observed selective binding of DNMT3B to the bodies of transcribed genes, which leads to their preferential methylation. This targeting to transcribed sequences requires SETD2-mediated methylation of lysine 36 on histone H3 and a functional PWWP domain of DNMT3B. Together these findings reveal how sequence and chromatin cues guidede novomethyltransferase activity to ensure methylome integrity.

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