Cardiovascular toxicities of systemic treatments of prostate cancer

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| Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, with an incidence that is expected to increase in the coming years. Prostate cancer is usually diagnosed in men >65 years of age, thus the concurrent presence of cardiovascular diseases might influence the treatment, owing to the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. The introduction of new drugs, such as abiraterone and enzalutamide for the management of metastatic disease has created further interest in treatment-related cardiovascular toxicities, although limited data from trials specifically designed to identify cardiovascular toxicities of these agents are currently available. The only available data are derived from published phase II-III study reports, expanded access or compassionate use programmes and meta-analyses of the effects of systemic therapies that are already approved for use in clinical practice or are in the early phases of development. These data are conflicting, although they seem to suggest that certain drugs are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Clinical trial methodology could be improved by the enrolment of greater numbers of patients >65 years of age, and the use of comprehensive cardiological evaluations. Moreover, closer collaboration between oncologists and cardiologists is essential for the identification and/or management of cardiovascular adverse events in patients with prostate cancer.

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