Oxidative stress in vascular disease: causes, defense mechanisms and potential therapies

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Endothelial cells control vascular homeostasis by generating paracrine factors that regulate vascular tone, inhibit platelet function, prevent adhesion of leukocytes, and limit proliferation of vascular smooth muscle. The dominant factor responsible for many of those effects is endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). Endothelial dysfunction characterized by enhanced inactivation or reduced synthesis of NO, alone or in combination, is seen in conjunction with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction can promote vasospasm, thrombosis, vascular inflammation, and proliferation of the intima. Vascular oxidative stress and increased production of reactive oxygen species contributes to mechanisms of vascular dysfunction. Oxidative stress is mainly caused by an imbalance between the activity of endogenous pro-oxidative enzymes (such as NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase or the mitochondrial respiratory chain) and antioxidant enzymes (such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, heme oxygenase, thioredoxin peroxidase/peroxiredoxin, catalase and paraoxonase). In addition, small-molecular-weight antioxidants might have a role in the defense against oxidative stress. Increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species reduce bioactive NO through chemical inactivation, forming toxic peroxynitrite, which in turn can uncouple endothelial NO synthase to form a dysfunctional superoxide-generating enzyme that contributes further to oxidative stress. The role of oxidative stress in vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis, and strategies for its prevention are discussed.

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