Since the identification of dystrophin as the protein product of the Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy locus, many different mutations, encompassing the entire spectrum of gene mutations ranging from point mutations to large deletions, have been found. These discoveries have led to the investigation of a variety of methods aimed at the treatment of muscular dystrophy, including strategies for gene replacement, gene correction, and modification of the gene product. The preferred approach in each case depends on the nature of the gene defect. In this Review, we focus on methods that have been developed for gene correction and for the modification of gene products. This mutation-focused approach offers the opportunity for 'personalized' gene therapy for muscular dystrophy and might also be a logical strategy for the treatment of other genetic disorders.