The prevalence of prostate cancer emphasizes the need for improved therapeutic options, particularly for metastatic disease. Current treatment includes medical or surgical castration, which initially induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells, but ultimately an androgen-independent subpopulation emerges. In addition to a transient therapeutic effect, androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) can initiate biochemical events that may contribute to the development of and progression to an androgen-independent state. This transition involves multiple signal transduction pathways that are accompanied by many biochemical changes resulting from ADT. These molecular events themselves are therapeutic targets and serve as a rationale for adjunctive treatment at the time of ADT.