The ability to make predictions based on stored information is a general coding strategy. A Prediction-Error (PE) is a mismatch between expected and current events. It was proposed as the process by which memories are acquired. But, our memories like ourselves are subject to change. Thus, an acquired memory can become active and update its content or strength by a labilization-reconsolidation process. Within the reconsolidation framework, PE drives the updating of consolidated memories. Moreover, memory features, such as strength and age, are crucial boundary conditions that limit the initiation of the reconsolidation process. In order to disentangle these boundary conditions, we review the role of surprise, classical models of conditioning, and their neural correlates. Several forms of PE were found to be capable of inducing memory labilization-reconsolidation. Notably, many of the PE findings mirror those of memory-reconsolidation, suggesting a strong link between these signals and memory process. Altogether, the aim of the present work is to integrate a psychological and neuroscientific analysis of PE into a general framework for memory-reconsolidation.