The role of hypernitrosylation in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of neuroprogressive diseases

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HighlightsHypernitrosylation (HN) induces changes in many neuro-immune pathways.HN leads to neuronal apoptosis, DAMP formation and autoimmunity.HN of mTOR and GSK-3 stimulates immune-inflammatory pathways and HN of NMDA receptors encourages glutamate excitotoxicity.HN-induced inactivation of SIRT-1 and NF-KB compromises HPA-axis responses to stress and impairs adult neurogenesis.HN of connexions and pannexins impairs astrocyte functions and glutamate uptake.There is a wealth of data indicating that de novo protein S-nitrosylation in general and protein transnitrosylation in particular mediates the bulk of nitric oxide signalling. These processes enable redox sensing and facilitate homeostatic regulation of redox dependent protein signalling, function, stability and trafficking. Increased S-nitrosylation in an environment of increasing oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) is initially a protective mechanism aimed at maintaining protein structure and function. When O&NS becomes severe, mechanisms governing denitrosylation and transnitrosylation break down leading to the pathological state referred to as hypernitrosylation (HN). Such a state has been implicated in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases and we investigate its potential role in the development and maintenance of neuroprogressive disorders. In this paper, we propose a model whereby the hypernitrosylation of a range of functional proteins and enzymes lead to changes in activity which conspire to produce at least some of the core abnormalities contributing to the development and maintenance of pathology in these illnesses.

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