Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and expression in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy: clinicopathological correlation

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Abstract

Background

Diabetic nephropathy represents a heterogeneous group of renal pathologies that may be associated with genetic susceptibility. There have been clinical reports on the risk association of diabetic nephropathy with an apolipoprotein E (ApoE) exon 4 polymorphism although its correlations with renal histopathological changes have not been explored.

Methods

A total of 213 adult autopsies with type 2 diabetes and 111 non-diabetic control cases were analysed. Genomic DNA samples were obtained from spleen tissues. The ApoE genotype was determined by PCR-LDR analysis. Histopathological examination of kidney sections was performed in a subset of 51 diabetic and 111 control cases. ApoE protein expression in diabetic carriers with similar clinical status was examined by immunohistochemical staining.

Results

In type 2 diabetes, ε2 carriers (P=0.04; odds ratio=5.42; 95% CI: 1.10–26.8) and ε3/ε4 (P=0.04; odds ratio=22.5; 95% CI: 1.11–454.90) genotype carriers were more likely to have glomerular hypertrophy than were ε3/ε3 carriers. The ε2 carriers showed an increase in glomerular ApoE protein expression. A correlation between ApoE genotype and nodular glomerulosclerosis was not found.

Conclusions

Our findings confirm the risk association of the ApoE polymorphism with diabetic nephropathy in clinical studies and is the first study demonstrating the correlations between ApoE genotypes, protein expression and structural changes in diabetic nephropathy.

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