Reduction and residual proteinuria are therapeutic targets in type 2 diabetes with overt nephropathy: a post hoc analysis (ORIENT-proteinuria)

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Abstract

Background

Proteinuria is a major predictor for progression of renal disease, including diabetic nephropathy. In a post hoc analysis of the ORIENT, a double-blinded randomized trial of 566 type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy, we examined the risk association of composite renal outcome [end-stage renal disease, ESRD, doubling of serum creatinine (SCr) and death] with baseline, change and residual urinary protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR).

Methods

We estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of composite renal outcome with baseline UPCR (low <1.0 g/gCr; moderate ≥1.0 g/gCr, <3.0 g/gCr and high ≥3.0 g/gCr) as well as percentage reduction of UPCR (Δ) (worsening: <0%; moderate: ≥0%, <30% and high ≥30%) and residual UPCR at 24 weeks (remission <1.0 g/gCr; moderate ≥1.0 g/gCr, <3.0 g/gCr and heavy ≥3.0 g/gCr).

Results

Compared with the low group with baseline UPCR < 1.0g/gCr, the respective HRs with 95% CI in the moderate and high UPCR groups were 3.02 (1.76–5.19) and 9.24 (5.43–15.73). Compared with patients with a worsening UPCR (<0%) at 24 weeks, the HR was 0.54 (0.39–0.74) in those with ≥0%, <30% ΔUPCR and 0.43 (0.31–0.61) in those with ≥30% ΔUPCR. Compared with the remission at 24 weeks, the HR was 2.12 (1.28–3.49) in moderate residual proteinuria and 4.59 (2.74–7.69) in heavy residual proteinuria. Compared with patients with residual UPCR ≥1.0 g/gCr and ΔUPCR <30%, the HR in those with ΔUPCR≥30% and residual UPCR<1.0 g/gCr was 0.38 (0.22–0.64).

Conclusions

In patients with type 2 diabetes and overt nephropathy, over 30% reduction of UPCR compared with baseline and/or residual UPCR<1.0 g/gCr at 24 weeks predicted renoprotection. These values may be used as targets to guide anti-proteinuric and renoprotective therapy in diabetic nephropathy.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00141453.

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