Fluid intake and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and kidney function: a population-based longitudinal cohort study

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Drinking eight glasses of fluid or water each day is widely believed to improve health, but evidence is sparse and conflicting. We aimed to investigate the association between fluid consumption and long-term mortality and kidney function.


We conducted a longitudinal analysis within a prospective, population-based cohort study of 3858 men and women aged 49 years or older residing in Australia. Daily fluid intake from food and beverages not including water was measured using a food frequency questionnaire. We did multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard models for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and a boot-strapping procedure for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).


Upper and lower quartiles of daily fluid intake corresponded to >3 L and <2 L, respectively. During a median follow-up of 13.1 years (total 43 093 years at risk), 1127 deaths (26.1 per 1000 years at risk) including 580 cardiovascular deaths (13.5 per 1000 years at risk) occurred. Daily fluid intake (per 250 mL increase) was not associated with all-cause [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.01)] or cardiovascular mortality [HR 0.98 (95% CI 0.95-1.01)]. Overall, eGFR reduced by 2.2 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (SD 10.9) in the 1207 (31%) participants who had repeat creatinine measurements and this was not associated with fluid intake [adjusted regression coefficient 0.06 mL/min/1.73 m2 per 250 mL increase (95% CI −0.03 to 0.14)].


Fluid intake from food and beverages excluding water is not associated with improved kidney function or reduced mortality.

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