The risk of hydrocephalus in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on dialysis has not been studied in depth.Methods
Using Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data, we identified 29 684 incident ESRD patients from 2000 to 2010, including 10 030 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 19 654 hemodialysis (HD) patients. The control cohort consisted of 118 736 people randomly selected from those without kidney disease, frequency matched with ESRD patients by age, sex and index year. We also established propensity score–matched cohorts with 10 014 PD and 10 014 HD patients. The incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) of hydrocephalus were calculated until the end of 2011.Results
Incidence rates of hydrocephalus were greater in HD and PD patients than in controls (8.44 and 11.0 versus 4.11 per 10 000 person-years, respectively), with an adjusted HR of 1.86 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–2.41] for all ESRD patients compared with controls. A higher proportion of hydrocephalus patients underwent surgical bypass to relieve hydrocephalus in ESRD patients than controls, 40.7% (46/113) versus 24.5% (67/273), with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.11 (95% CI 1.33–3.36). Compared with controls, the adjusted HRs of communicating hydrocephalus for HD and PD patients were 1.77 (95% CI 1.22–2.55) and 2.51 (95% CI 1.61–3.89), respectively. The propensity score–matched analysis showed an HR of 0.72 (95% CI 0.42–1.23) for hydrocephalus in HD patients compared with PD patients.Conclusions
Patients with ESRD are at an increased risk of hydrocephalus. The risk difference between HD and PD patients is not significant.