Intermittent smoking is prevalent among Hispanics, but little is known about whether this smoking pattern associates with increased chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk in this population. The objective of the present study is to identify patterns of exposure associated with CKD in US Hispanics.Methods
We used cross-sectional data on 15 410 participants of the Hispanics Community Health Study/the Study of Latinos, a population-based study of individuals aged 18–74 years, recruited in 2008 to 2011 from four US field centers (Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; San Diego, CA). Smoking exposure was obtained through a questionnaire. CKD was defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio of ≥30 mg/g.Results
Approximately 14% of individuals were daily and 7% were intermittent smokers, and 16% were past smokers. There was a significant interaction between smoking status and pack-years of exposure (P = 0.0003). In adjusted models, there was an increased odds of CKD among daily, intermittent and past smokers by pack-years compared with never smokers. The association of intermittent smokers was significant at 10 pack-years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.38, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.06, 1.81], whereas for daily smokers this association was observed at 40 pack-years (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.09, 1.89).Conclusions
Our findings of increased risk of CKD among Hispanics who are intermittent smokers support screening and smoking cessation interventions targeted to this population for the prevention of CKD. It also suggests novel mechanistic pathways for kidney toxicity that should be further explored in future studies.