Functional dyspepsia (FD) is characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms, which are frequently exacerbated by meal ingestion. While subgroups of FD patients exhibit a range of disturbances in upper gastrointestinal motor function, including delayed gastric emptying and abnormal intragastric meal distribution, which may reflect impaired proximal gastric relaxation and/or antral dysmotility, the association between symptoms and abnormalities in motor function appears to be relatively weak. More recently, the concept of visceral hypersensitivity to mechanical and chemical/nutrient stimuli has been promoted as important in the aetiology of dyspeptic symptoms. Somewhat surprisingly, the role of ‘dietary’ factors, that is, those factors, related directly to food ingestion, including patterns of nutrient intake, potential intolerance to specific foods or macronutrients, as well as cognitive factors, have been largely ignored. Moreover, presently available treatments fail to take into account the fact that symptoms are frequently induced by eating. This review focuses on the relevance of ‘dietary’ factors to FD.