Gestational Alloimmune Liver Disease: A Case Study

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Abstract

Gestational alloimmune liver disease (GALD) is initiated by maternal antibodies that attack fetal hepatocytes. The fetal immune response to the antibodies causes liver damage. The incidence of GALD is four per 100,000 live births in the United States. Frequently, liver injury leads to fetal loss or neonatal demise; nonetheless, the presentation of GALD has a wide range of severity. Survival rates have increased from 20 to 80 percent changes in treatment and understanding of GALD. Current treatment is focused on supportive care with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and exchange transfusions. Mortality risk is positively associated with the timing of diagnosis. Although there has been an increase in understanding this disease, the discovery of the specific alloantigen is still needed. Relevant embryology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, medical treatment, and prognosis are discussed to aid health care professionals in the early identification and treatment for the neonate and family unit.

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