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To investigate the dynamic changes in plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) after allograft renal transplantation.Plasma BNP was measured in 17 patients before and after unilateral allograft renal transplantation (study group) and in 17 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals (control group).Average BNP level in the study group was significantly higher than in the control group before renal transplantation (P < 0.001). After transplantation, blood pressure was reduced and left ventricular ejection fraction was increased (P < 0.01). There was also a substantial reduction in plasma BNP and blood creatinine following the surgery (P < 0.001). Graft dysfunction accompanied by significant rebound in plasma BNP levels was detected in four patients within 2 weeks of the surgery.Plasma BNP levels are elevated in patients with chronic renal failure. Allograft renal transplantation significantly reduces BNP. Sudden increases in plasma BNP after the transplantation are associated with allograft dysfunction. Together with other biomarkers, plasma BNP may be used to predict the changes in renal function after transplantation.